The first skateboards were actually scooters wealth of the late 1930s 1 . Poor children who can not afford a scooter, skate salvaged an old sawed and nailed the two pieces and made a rafter. With a crate and they made a free ipad bracket to the handlebar. Subsequently, they got rid of the handlebars, the latter having a limited function to support and not to management as on the real scooters, the direction being provided by the system of axles skate 1 . In the movie Back to the future there is a nod to the history of skateboarding when the hero is pursued in the 1950s , is seen pulling the handle of one of these scooters fortune.
The “roll-surfing” appears in the late 1950s in California 2 . The first skateboard industry are sold under the brand Humco 3 in 1956 [ref. required] . Soon the skateboard will be called ” sidewalk surfboard “or” roll-surf “, literally” surf board sidewalks, “and will become increasingly popular. In Billy Wilder’s film released in 1966 and filmed in 1965 The Fortune Cookie , a scene shows kids riding on skateboards. In France, the childrens magazine Le Journal de Tintin pulls an article on roll’surf in May 1966, showing figures inspired by surfing, gymnastics and athletics (high jump). In Quebec, still in 1966, Claude Jutra realizes Devil’s Toy , chiropractic seminars a short film about the passion of youth in Montreal for the sport and the law that banned the practice in the streets.
The first competition date in 1963 2 . On that same date, the first skates are emerging in Europe and particularly France, where the first competition held in 1965 2 . Arnaud de Rosnay is illustrated on the occasion of the editions of the championship of France 1965, 1966 and 1967 4 . Until 1973 , however, the skate is struggling to develop. Innovation changes the game: Californians and Bob Frank Nashaworthy Bahn develop the wheel urethane, modern skateboarding was born 4 . Success was immediate and the phenomenon goes global in 1974 with the sale of millions of plates: 15 million skates sold in 1975 in the U.S. 5 . The first skateparks emerge 5 . while a press emerges. In France, the discipline is recognized as sports by the Ministry in 1974 5 . 27 skateparks are created in France between 1974 and 1978 6 .
Discipline collapses in the early 1980s 6 . Innovation is very important, now more than ever to the agenda. Stars such as Natas Kaupas (inventor of the Wall ride ) or Mark Gonzales are very far: the handrails, rails , etc.. They push their boards in a new direction, more crazy. The practice is predominantly urban, but this time the skaters make maximum use of the configuration of the city. If this time is the prerogative of the use of rails , the new generation of the late 1980s also shows the level of the gaps : jumps spaces, stairs.
Meanwhile, the practice of ramps has more and more success, quickly becoming fashionable.
Appear Mike Carroll , Colin McKay , Salman Agah , skaters now less publicized than skaters like Tony Hawk , Rodney Mullen , but still active.
Between 1992 and 1995 , the skate puts the emphasis on technique, somewhat abandoning the aesthetic. This period will see the emergence of hundreds of new tricks : the flips , to create and improve, Salman Agah invented the switch (on practicing with the opposite leg to that call, the wrong sort of) .
Rodney Mullen is mainly, Natas Kaupas with, that the origin of modern skate and invented some twenty figures whose kickflip and heelflip .
The appearance of skateboarding has also evolved. It now has wheels and tiny boards called “matches”. On the other hand, perhaps in an implicit search of unity, skaters began to adopt his own style, more or less inspired by fashion surfers. This period is called ” big pants, small wheels “(” big no no hair removal pants, small wheels “).
After a few years to perfect their tricks (figures), skaters – imitating stars like Pepe Martinez – back to their first love, seizing more than ever of the street. Again, large gaps and handrails are honored, this time coupled with the new technique.
If the ramp, very fashionable in the 1980s , seems to marginalize the early 1990s , it is finally drawing to a radiant sky. This is the time of Danny Way (considered by some the “greatest ramprider of history “or the” master of the Green ‘”), but also to Rune Glifberg , Bucky Lasek , Tony Hawk , John Cardiel , Tony Trujillo .
The year 1998 sees the start of the festival Jamie Thomas – named after its creator, a skateboarder who also created the brand Zero Skateboards, and Fallen Shoes pop up display – still in vogue today. It was highly publicized through video Welcome to Hell Toy Machine brand.
From that time, and even today, several different styles emerged: skaters’ technical ‘,’ go-getters “, etc.. Today, the question is, what matters most in the discipline: the style or performance? This question is even weaker than it appears. While some consider technical practice as unattractive, others on the contrary can not conceive of technique and style separately. Fortunately, today, this question is more diversified source of that contention.
Sport or art
Skateboarding is it a sports or art ? The question arises when one wishes to address the style and philosophy of the discipline. A sport is a discipline focusing on performance, while art aims to achieve an aesthetic ideal, by a technique, a style unique. As art, skateboarding would be close to the dance, in that the search for beauty is through movement.
Evaluation systems skaters at competitions show the ambivalence of the discipline. Thus, at the end of its run (pass, delivery), the skateboarder will be judged not only on technique and performance, but also on creativity and style (aesthetics). Limited time, a run can be compared to a program of figure skating , but with less strict rules and no dichotomy between program and free program imposed.
Most fans do not consider skateboarding as a sport discipline in its own right. Two different but complementary emerge so. While skateboarding is not a sport to become 100% – all aspects of the discipline is not quantifiable in terms of performance – the practice of the discipline as visual aesthetic object (including photography) is spreading.
Pair of sneakers Vans widely used in the 1980
Recovery by the media image of skateboarding and the profusion of brands of skate (Black Label, Enjoi Blind , DVS , World Skateboarding , Anti Hero , Vans , Bones , Altamont Apparel , Carhartt , DC , BoardBreaker , DGK, Oxelo and many others) also did “skater style” fashion in itself. Indeed, the stylistic habits of followers, from popular culture and American urban California, are reproduced by a multitude of young people, most not even being interested in skateboarding. This new generation is to a strange eye by some “real” skaters, who classify such “posers”. This style is being developed in fashion, the dress attire of skateboarders is expensive, which sometimes leads to situations where only the “layers” are actually skate clothes, while practitioners do not necessarily see the interest. But do not see there behind an imitation or replica idle ridiculous. The recovery of this mode is a way to show its adherence to a philosophy, even more than a discipline in itself. The spirit of skateboarding has greatly inspired the new generation, becoming a social phenomenon, and a reference among the young.
Specifically, and since 2000/01, the style “skater” is characterized by loose clothing or tight clothing. Preference is thus given to t-shirts tria laser hair removal reviews and long pants “baggy” (loose pants down under the buttocks and showing underwear), style we describe as ” Big pants, small wheels “(literally, big pants, and small wheels) or trousers ” Slim “with fine shoes dental assistant schools and tight T-shirt. Skate shoes, meanwhile, are very specific. Designed to keep better on a skateboard and be damaged as little as possible, they are big and equipped with thick laces. But brands of skate shoes are now more discreet models or classical, symptomatic of the adoption of the style “skater” by people not practicing.
Amalgam is often done and then we group all styles underground as the “skater”.
Musical culture that is behind the skateboard is the result of a long evolution, and is thus very diverse. The music styles vary, we listen to Los Angeles singers rap west coast (the “West Coast”), while in New York we will listen to the music of the East Coast (the “East Coast”).
Deriving from surfing , discipline culture deeply rock ‘n’ roll , skateboarding then developed into the street. There is no absolute generality to do. Hip-hop is recovered for membership in the street culture American, while the rock recalls the euphoria of the early days. Nevertheless it seems that most skaters listen to the rock . But we must also note that some skaters, may be described as roots listen to different musical genres such as reggae , the dub or the ska . Another branch of the skaters listening to metal . Increasingly, a significant parity skaters listen to electronic music, especially of dubstep, techno, electro, motivating them by the skateboarder their rhythm and melodies (the purpose of this music is to train people to dance at least move their bodies and “excite”)
Music (in movies) often influence young skaters, who sometimes find to open a new musical genre. The music in each hand (video section), closely linked to the image of the skateboarder and the brand, influence some young people who start to dress as they like skateboarding and listening to the same music style . In the videos you can often see that the skateboarder connects his tricks in time. When the skater will be a gap or a trick in slow motion when he replaquera, he will do along with the music. This comes as video editing are done.
A style of music akin to Californian punk , the Skatecore , took a name recalling the skate.
Sessions or at competitions, said AM (amateur) or Pro (Professional), there will always be the presence of music. Music gives a rhythm to the runs of the skaters, they are inspired and show imagination. All combined, the skateboarder, his board and the music gives a result which will be denoted by the juries. This is why music plays a fairly important role for skaters runs.
Skateboarding and image
Videos that have marked every generation, history of skateboarding, demonstrate the connection between skateboarding and images. While innovation in the figures and their sequences has become the benchmark measure of a good video, the aesthetics of this sequence, the overall impression made, and style remain essential for the latter enters the history. It is generally associated with a soundtrack that “glue” to the sequences of each skateboarder.
There the film Lords of Dogtown , of Catherine Hardwicke , who traces the evolution of skateboarding in the 1970s and the founding of a new discipline (the poolriding) that will revolutionize skateboarding and sports in general: Jay Adams , Stacy Peralta (who also scripted the film, and whose role is played by the young John Robinson , lead actor of Elephant in Gus Van Sant ) and Tony Alva .
Videographers Skate Ty Evans and Spike Jonze , known to have directed the video Yeah Right , are the first to be going one step forward in achieving the skate videos. They use techniques and special effects for film , and now filming with HD cameras.
From its original American , the vocabulary related to the discipline is full of neologisms directly borrowed from the English . In terms of its name, the skateboard claims his English origins, is now more used than the original and official name: the skateboard. Also known sometimes as “skateboard”.
It’s the same for the names of tricks (figures): the varial flip to boardslide , all figures are named in English. It is not uncommon to hear a skater qualify a simple 360 ° rotation of three-sixty (literally “three (hundred) sixty”).
Some items have a dual designation. Thus, in a skatepark , we will not hesitate to speak of ” ramps “(French), but we will specify what type it is speaking of half-pipe (English) and quarter-pipe (English). In other cases, the English name alongside the French name without one predominates over the other form (eg fifty-fifty (50-50) in English and “fifty-fifty (50-50)” in French).
The skateboard is generally considered an extreme sport, although it can be practiced at much different. As a discipline, it remains close to its neighbors “slides” such as BMX , the X-board , on the longboard streetboarding , the surf , the skimboard , freestyle scooter and its variants: windsurfing , kitesurfing , or even snowboarding .
Technical aspects of skateboarding
Skatepark in Valencia , Spain
A skatepark is a place for the practice of skateboarding . A skate park is designed for roller skating ” Street “or aggressive skating . A bmx park is a place reserved for the practice of BMX . These spaces on which the ” riders “can roll, slide, jump, or perform tricks are strongly requested by young people, but also by the quarantine and thirtysomethings who still practice since the year 1970 – 1980 .
Too often, “skatepark” is used as a general term for multi-sport areas, which is an error because the lines, customers’ expectations are often completely different.
In a majority of France is manufactured in modular skateparks. The materials used on the modules are: HPL, steel, aluminum, wood, hemp and skatelite.
We see from the 1990s to develop areas of concrete and much more modern architected reproducing street furniture (steps, walls, handrail …), the ” bowls “(” bowls “) or” pools “(” pools ” ). The big trend is the ” street-plaza “(space-like a place whose furniture is designed for skateboarding). The DC skateplaza Kettering, Ohio is the first of its kind and remains the global benchmark. A skatepark may be covered (” indoor “) or outdoor (” outdoor “). The outdoor skateparks are generally free, while those who are covered are often paid, management of these is often provided by private organizations. Found more or less the same modules in installations covered and non-covered, however the bowls (ramps in large hollow bowl-shaped or bean) are rare on the inside.
Summary [ hide ]
2 The sizes
3 Other skateparks
3.1 A separate skatepark
5 Notes and references
6.1 Related article
Main article: Modules skatepark .
Skatepark in Davis (California) , in the foreground a funbox / concrete table, plan a second bowl
Skatepark in Azzano, San Paolo (Italy) left a half-pipe, a funbox right / table
Explanatory diagram of a half-pipe
The skateparks are inspired modern street furniture. There are thus an impressive number, distinguished by their material, their shape. In recent years, manufacturers are trying to innovate as much as possible by creating new modules. There are particular:
The curb : it is a low wall, on which stops are realized slides or grinds (for vocabulary, see tricks ). This is not necessarily artificial and is found in street furniture (benches, curbs, …).
Rail : In addition to the curb, it is also possible to make slides or grinds on rails, also called “bar slides.” In analogy with street furniture include the stair rails ( handrails ).
The pool structure is directly inspired by the Californian swimming pools topped with a rounded bottom, not a steel coping (metal bar) but coping. Like most pools, it consists of a large bath and a small bathroom, which is called in the middle of the skateboard in the English terms, that is to say ” deep end “and” shallow end “, and a waterfall which makes the transition between the deep and the small portion. The marches, the ” death box “(rectangular hole located under certain coping reproducing the skimmers pools), diving boards are welcome to create obstacles. The pool is the original structure that gave birth to modern sports such as skateboarding ramp and street.
The half pipe or ramp : this is a U-shaped ramp, in which skaters perform back-and-vients, gaining speed and making the sides of various tricks. At the end of the half-pipe is a tubular rail called ” coping “, and which can make slides or grinds as well as tricks most individuals ( at coping tricks ). The name ” half pipe “in English means” half-tube “, a name which seems obvious when one considers the shape of the module.
The quarter-pipe : As its name suggests, the ” quarter “is sort of half a half-pipe . This is an inclined plane and concave, featuring a coping at the top end. You can combine two quarter to reconstruct a half-pipe, but you can also combine them in a different way, by matching the two copings, creating a spin .
The funbox : is a table which have been added curves. Placed there, or not, a handrail , it is possible to use the curves for jumps or just ride. The funbox offers only limited opportunities for development. Its design is unfortunately about the same for 20 years.
There are skate parks of all sizes. Some cities are equipped with important facilities where competitions are held regularly, called ” contest “. These skateparks are rather large, and some are paid. In major competitions, the winners win prizes by check (” prize money “), but the amounts are modest (between 10 000 and 30 000 dollars ), compared to other sports.
The SMP Skatepark Skatepark is the largest in the world. It is Shanghai in China and covers approximately 13,700 m² . The second largest skatepark in the world is the complex of the Black Pearl Cayman Islands , with 5,800 sqm . The biggest skatepark in Europe is covered in Marseille in Marseille Grand Palais Omnisports East , it was inaugurated in December 2009 1 and lasts for more than 3400 m² .
Jumping on a halfpipe
The EGP18 , the new skatepark in Paris in the 18 th district is spread over 3000 m² 2 . Access is free and slots are defined for each discipline, skateboarding, rollerblading, and BMX.
Marseille is an international since 1991 with his Bowl of Marseille Prado bowl or 3 , where access is also free. A ” street skatepark “on Friche Belle de Mai opened in November 2009. This puts Marseille, with Paris as a hub of skateboarding in France, especially since the opening of the largest skatepark indoor in Europe, the Marseille Indoor Skate Park .
Annecy has an interesting structure on a mountainside on the edge of the lake.
Kortrijk , Antwerp in Belgium, Malmo in Sweden, The Kantera to Algorta Spain are skateparks reference for practitioners magnet concrete.
The largest skate park click here to download free ringtones in Europe is Sattel in Suisse.Il spans more than 7000 m² .
The biggest skatepark of France, outdoor, free, is located in Havre . It was opened in early 2006.
The only indoor skatepark in eastern France, the Bowl of Hag 4 , is in Haguenau , in Alsace. It was opened March 23, 2010.
A skateboard consists of several separate pieces, generally chosen separately and then assembled.
This is the main element. There are many shapes and sizes. It is made of wood ( maple Canadian mostly for European boards) and consisting of seven to twelve thin layers, there are several sizes of plates. To classify them, we refer to the width. This varies from 7.4 inches (referred to simply by 7.4), ( 190 mm ) – commonly used to discipline street – up to 9.5 inches (for the bowl in general) and the price n has nothing to do with the quality of the field, he must look at the concave (the shape of the plate), for the “ramp”. Most professionals use only 8-inch boards to a minimum. Other criteria that distinguish different width planks and they also have unique shapes (the concave). First, the pattern, linked to a brand or even a famous skateboarder (pro model), but also the length and curvature. The edges and corners of boards are rounded, but usually these become sharp by dint of wear. The board is covered with the grip , an adhesive sheet “anti-slip” comparable to sandpaper, quite indispensable for the ollie and responsible for the rapid wear shoes. The front of the board is called the nose long side of the plateau (English for nose) and the back of the board is called the tail of the shortest shelf (the English word meaning tail). On most boards today, there is no Kansas City carpet cleaning real distinction between the front and back of the board (one can, however, that the nose is slightly longer and more curved than the tail on some models but the difference is very small). The words nose and tail only intervene when in function of position and direction that the skateboarder gives the board.
A truck used by Destructo grinds
There are two per skate . They are screwed directly to the board and serve as liaison between the board and wheels. They are special aluminum (not welded to the safety of the skater) to handle shocks without weighing heavy.
There are also several colors and gaits, but it does not free green smoke coupon really differ from that present in the photo. Some brands offer the most unexpected forms, such as axes Blind , carved in the shape of character surrounded by letters forming the name of the brand, all in relief.
How tight is the axis determines how to skate. For maximum stability it is necessary to tighten, it will then lightly press the tail for rotation. Deserre, skateboarding just turns by leaning the body. We can achieve the same result by installing “gums” more or less hard, however the price of these “gums” or “doh-doh”, the brand name manufacturer’s most popular, is quite high.
The term axis ( kingpin in English) also refers to screw around which all parts of the truck is coming together: the base, the hanger (the part on which grind is) and “gums”. The payday advance kingpin is the part that breaks most often on a truck.
These are all ball bearings . There are several types of quality, classified according to the standards ABEC ranging from 1 to 9. ABEC1 being the low-end bearings inefficient but solid, the ABEC3 and 5 are the most common, strong and fast while ABEC7 and 9 tend to be weaker, but faster. Many brands today are no longer really consider these standards for their high-end bearings. A board requires eight bearings (two per wheel). The bearings are usually spaced by a spacer (a sort of little piece of pipe metal that is used to facilitate sliding between the shaft and the bearing).
In urethane , have a diameter which may vary from 45 to 60 mm for the most common models. In general the small wheels are preferred by skaters street because they offer more responsiveness to skateboarding by lowering the center of gravity of the plank that comes more quickly in contact with the ground when the skater is his trick . The large wheels provide a rather less responsive but more stability and a speed ride higher and are generally used by the ramp-riders or skaters who love speed. The hardness of the wheels also varies, the wheels of “cameramen” is generally soft enough to reduce vibration and noise due to rolling on the floor in order to improve the film quality. Finally, the bearings are inserted into the center of the wheels. This is sometimes reinforced by a plastic heart to improve the life of the bearings. This hardness is written with a number followed by an A corresponding to the Shore . There are several types: 92A (more for the street ), 95A, 99A and 101A for even the toughest (used mainly for skateparks and the slides in longskate). Some companies such as Earthwing wheels have also created hardness 52D for maximum hardness.
Pairs of screws / bolts are used to hold the skateboard trucks. The screws may be of different lengths, depending on whether the skate has pads or not. The size of conventional hardware is 1 inch ( 25.4 mm ).
To tighten the screws are generally used an allen key and a wrench (size 8). The screws of different colors are useful to determine where the nose and tail .
There is an alternative to screws, nails provided for this purpose that can do without bolts.
Small rectangles of plastic placed between the truck and the board. They have the same size as the base of the truck with a height of about 1 or 2 mm . They allow the absorption of ground vibration and shock absorption and the riser of trucks to accommodate the wheels of a larger diameter to prevent wheel-bite (when the wheels touch the plate). These elements are optional.
Main article: Tricks .
There are a large number of figures, or tricks . The simplest is the ollie (jump) or simply the wheelie or manual (riding on the rear wheels of the board remaining balance). The ollie is a trick that a beginner must learn if he wants to evolve. To switch to another level you must complete the kickflip or heelflip and thus a host of other tricks are available to you. Before its invention, the first skaters rose into the air by performing a boneless or no comply- , of raising the plate by stamping on the floor, or with your hand to the boneless, and are now considered as tricks old school . Now, the ollie skips without needing to touch the board with your hands or put your foot on the ground.
The other figures are divided into different categories according to certain criteria.
A spot (place in English ) is a popular spot to ride. It may be a simple staircase or a skatepark, it is of interest to perform tricks http://www.insuranceforcriticalillness.co.uk/ like sliding on a rail or borrow a descent. Street spots are often used against local authorities for many reasons (deterioration, noise, disturbance of public order).
skateparks The module will equip inspired street furniture to provoke. These modules are distinguished by their shape, size, material, or by the tricks they can perform.
Discipline in interactive media
Several video games have tried to recreate the feelings one can experience in skateboarding. Among these games, we find:
Top Skater , a simulated arcade game created how to get your ex back by Sega in 1997 that is not truly representative of skateboarding practiced by the majority as it is downhill.
Skate and Destroy , released in February 2000 edited by rock star, which is struggling to reproduce figures at the ergonomics of the buttons but that is fun for the falls where the skater becomes a disjointed puppet.
But the first skateboarding game to have had a big success is the series of Tony Hawk’s Skateboarding developed by Activision and released in 1999, the characters were created from pro skaters scanned using sensors, which must surely not be the case on Top Skater where skaters have their boards who remain stuck to the feet. We had never reached this realism in a skateboarding game, everything is a reproduction of the existing figures of bases, clothing, equipment, certain spots. Only endless combos of figures that players create may suffer from a lack of realism, to the delight of the latter. This game, by its distribution, has contributed immensely to popularize skateboarding technical terms and names of pros to the general public. In September 2007, Electronic Arts has released a new skateboarding game that has a good gameplay that mimics the movements that one can do on a board.
Skate is a skateboarding video game from EA Sports released on PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360 September 24, 2007 in the U.S. and October 11, 2007 in France and Europe. A sequel, titled Skate 2 , was released in 2008 and a derivative for Nintendo DS and Wii called Skate It . This game has brought what was sorely lacking in Tony Hawk’s Skateboarding . Whereas before realism was essentially “visual” Skate approaches a simulation (if we exclude the fact of playing with your hands!). When played Tony Hawk’s Skateboarding , orders were only used to move and for the execution of tricks (figures) if we let go the handle, the skater continued his route, each button corresponds to a different type of figure. Here the player is facing new challenges, each pushing forward to be executed with the joystick. So when is a few meters of an obstacle, we must manage the momentum and prepare to execute the figure as if we were in the street. The player must learn to manage the space as in reality, what makes this game exciting.